Recommended Third-party Due Diligence Sources

Regulatory/Government Agencies

Pennsylvania Infrastructure Investment Authority (PENNVEST)

Home | Bion approval PDF Icon

PA Department of Environmental Protection

Home | Nutrient Trading Program PDF Icon | Bion approval (Click the link to Certified Proposal Tracking; Bion/Kreider is #58 and #87 on list that loads)


Home | Water Quality Trading (info) | Water Quality Trading Evaluation PDF Icon | Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Taskforce

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)

Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force | Interim Report PDF Icon

National Science and Technology Council

Ocean Science and Technology | Scientific Assessment of Hypoxia in U.S. Coastal Waters


Home | 2007 Ag Census | USDA/Marketing and Trade/Data and Statistics | Natural Resources Conservation Service, "Nutrient Credit Trading - a Market-based Approach for Improving Water Quality" PDF Icon | Mississippi River Basin Initiative | The Transformation of U.S. Livestock Agriculture: Scale, Efficiency, and Risks

Chesapeake Bay Executive Order

Home | Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed PDF Icon

Mississippi River Basin Healthy Watersheds Initiative


Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

US EPA | GLRI Action Plan PDF Icon (see Focus Area 3: Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution, pg 26)

Chesapeake Bay Program - Home

US Geological Survey (USGS)

National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program | SPARROW Surface Water-Quality Modeling


Global Partnership on Nutrient Management/UNEP (Feb 2013) - Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution (choose executive summary or full report)

Pennsylvania Legislative Budget and Finance Committee Report (1/22/13) - A Cost Effective Alternative Approach to Meeting Pennsylvania's Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Reduction Targets PDF Icon

Pennsylvania Legislative Budget and Finance Committee Report - Summary PDF Icon

Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI - World Water Week) (8/21/12) - Feeding a Thirsty World: Challenges and Opportunities for a Water and Food Secure Future PDF Icon

Chesapeake Bay Commission/RTI International (5/10/12) - Nutrient Credit Trading for the Chesapeake Bay - An Economic Study

Environmental Working Group (4/6/12) - Troubled Waters: Farm Pollution Threatens Drinking Water

National Association of Clean Water Agencies (3/6/12 released) - Controlling Nutrient Loadings to U.S. Waterways: An Urban Perspective PDF Icon

Ecological Society of America (1/7/12) - Excess Nitrogen in the U.S. Environment: Trends, Risks, and Solutions PDF Icon

Environmental Integrity Fund (2011) - Hazardous Pollution from Factory Farms: An Analysis of EPA's National Air Emissions Monitoring Study Data PDF Icon

Food and Water Watch/CA Sportfishing Protection Alliance (2011) - What's in the Water? Industrial Dairies, Groundwater Pollution and Regulatory Failure in California's Central Valley

National Academy of Sciences (et al) - Improving Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin and Northern Gulf of Mexico: Strategies and Priorities (2010)

National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program (2010) - USGS Circular 1350: Nutrients in the Nation's Streams and Groundwater | Nutrients remain elevated in the Nation's streams and groundwater (Map); Nitrate in Shallow Ground Water (Map); Phosphorus and Nitrogen Delivery to the Gulf of Mexico (Map);

National Science and Technology Council (2010) - Scientific Assessment of Hypoxia in U.S. Coastal Waters PDF Icon

Environmental Law & Policy Center/Mississippi River Collaborative (2010) - Cultivating Clean Water PDF Icon

World Resources Institute (2010) - How Nutrient Trading Could Help Restore the Chesapeake Bay PDF Icon

National Geographic Society (2010) - Marine Habitat Destruction

Cornell Nutrition Conference (2009) - "Demystifying the environmental sustainability of food production" PDF Icon

USDA ERS (2009) - The Transformation of U.S. Livestock Agriculture: Scale, Efficiency, and Risks

General Accountability Office (2008) - Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: EPA Needs More Information and a Clearly Defined Strategy to Protect Air and Water Quality from Pollutants of Concern

Metcalf & Eddy Report (2008) - PA Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategy Compliance Cost Study PDF Icon

Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production (2008) - "Pew Commission Says Industrial Scale Farm Animal Production Poses "Unacceptable" Risks to Public Health, Environment" PDF Icon

UNESCO, UNEP (2008) - "Livestock in a Changing Landscape" PDF Icon

Chesapeake Bay Foundation Report (2006) - "Manure's Impact on Rivers, Streams and the Chesapeake Bay" PDF Icon

Pew Oceans Commission (2003) - "America's Living Oceans: Summary Report - Recommendations for a New Ocean Policy" Major Threats to Our Oceans: Animal Feedlots PDF Icon

News and Articles

June 19, 2013 - – Agricultural runoff could create record Gulf of Mexico ‘dead zone’

June 17, 2013 - SF Chronicle/Science – Will dairy industry resurgence fuel pollution?

June 8, 2013 - Tidewaternews – A collaborative approach to Chesapeake Bay restoration

June 8, 2013 - Bay Journal - Improvements in water quality an added benefit of air pollution regs

June 5, 2013 - - Iowa copes with nitrate surge in drinking water

May 8, 2013 - WorldWatch Institute – Agriculture and Livestock Remain Major Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

April 17, 2013 - World Resources Institute - Can Nutrient Trading Shrink the Gulf of Mexico's Dead Zone?

April 3, 2013 - New York Daily News – Meat labels will include where animal was born and slaughtered, irking Canada and Mexico

March 29, 2013 - Food Safety News – Livestock-to-Human MRSA Transmission Confirmed

March 26, 2013 - Washington Post – EPA report: More than half nation’s rivers in poor shape

March 26, 2013 - Colorado State University – Managing Livestock Ammonia: A Volatile, Promiscuous Fugitive In the Atmosphere

March 7, 2013 - Epoch Times – World’s Seas Must Go on ‘Pollution Diet,’ Says Biologist: Oxygen depletion creating dead zones

March 15, 2013 - Wall Street Journal – Iowa is Pushed to Combat Farm Pollution PDF Icon

March 14, 2013 - New York Times – Spring Rain, Then Foul Algae in Ailing Lake Erie

March 7, 2013 - Greenwire – Washington dairies agree to reduce nitrate contamination PDF Icon

March 1, 2013 - William and Mary – [Our Nutrient World] Diaz co-authors UN report on nutrient threats and benefits

February 1, 2013 - WaterWorld – Staying Competitive: Could Water Quality Trading be a Solution?

January 31, 2013 - WaterWorld – PA Legislature releases significant report on benefits of nutrient reduction program

January 14, 2013 - InsideEPA - CAFOs Lose Key State Court Appeal Over Water Permits For Air Emissions PDF Icon

January 8, 2013 - Forbes - Want To Take A Look At The Antibiotics In Your Meat? Here's Your Chance

January 5, 2013 - Peoples Daily-China - Livestock and poultry breeding pollution underestimated

December 16, 2012 - NY Times (Opinion – NRDC) - Antibiotics in Livestock

December 14, 2012 - Magic Valley Times-News - Officials Promote water quality trading to reduce pollution

December 13, 2012 - Baltimore Sun - Nutrient-trading programs can reduce bay pollution

December 13, 2012 - National Hog Farmer - Iowa Proposes Nutrient Reduction Strategy

November 15, 2012 - Capital Press - Battles continue over EPA ammonia, dust regs

October 30, 2012 - Science Daily - Agriculture and Food Production Contribute Up to 29 Percent of Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

October 18, 2012 - Farm Futures - U.S. Rep Pushes For Farm Animal Antibiotic Legislation

October 15, 2012 - Science Daily - Protecting and Restoring the Great Lakes

October 11, 2012 - redOrbit - Proximity To Livestock Spreads Pathogens Like MRSA

October 5, 2012 - NY Times - Worrisome Measure of Decline at Great Barrier Reef

October 2, 2012 - HeraldExtra (from Washington Post) - Market approach to saving Chesapeake Bay worth exploring

October 1, 2012 - BeefDaily - Consumers Vote With Their Wallets

October 2012 - BayJournal - VA watershed plan ignores largest source of nutrients, targets smaller sectors

September 25, 2012 - Bloomberg - McDonald's Wants to Know Whether Its Beef Is Sustainable

September 19, 2012 - ScienceDaily - Carbon Dioxide from Water Pollution, as Well as Air Pollution, May Adversely Impact Oceans

August 30, 2012 - USGS - Increased Sediment and Nutrients Delivered to Bay as Susquehanna Reservoirs Near Sediment Capacity

August 21, 2012 - Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) - SIWI report outlines major threats and opportunities for water and food security

August 16, 2012 - (Maryland) - Frederick County Fears Price Tag of Bay Cleanup

August 15, 2012 - Waste Management World - Biofuel Only Viable from Renewable Waste - But There's Not Enough

August 14, 2012 - Science Daily - Potent Human Toxins Prevalent in Canada's Freshwaters

June 6, 2012 - Univ of Illinois PR - Team determines how estrogens persist in dairy farm wastewater

May 10, 2012 - Waterworld - NACWA applauds USDA Water Quality Initiative but calls on Congress to weigh in on nutrients

May 10, 2012 - RTI International (press release) - Water Quality Trading Could Significantly Reduce Chesapeake Bay Cleanup Costs, Study Finds

May 7, 2012 - Washington Post - Ammonia emissions from Calif. dairy herds contribute heavily to smog, study says

May 4, 2012 - Baltimore Sun - Bay pollution trading stirs mixed feelings

April 12, 2012 - Environmental Working Group - Poor Farming Practices Foul Drinking Water at the Source (EWG Report: New Farm Bill Must Protect Source Water)

April 1, 2012 - - Governor McDonnell Announces Submission of Phase II of Virginia Plan to Clean Up Chesapeake Bay

March 22, 2012 - Baltimore Sun - A Big Cleanup

March 14, 2012 - NY Daily News - Lawsuits against EPA target nutrients in US waters

March 13, 2012 - Natural Resources Defense Council Staff Blog - Chicago and the Gulf Dead Zone: NRDC Lawsuits Address Downstream Damage

March 13, 2012 - FresnoBee - UC Study: Cropland Threatens Drinking Water for 250,000 in Valley

March 6, 2012 - Healthy Waters Coalition (including NACWA) - Healthy Waters Coalition Urges Congress to Act on Nutrient Run-Off

Jan 28, 2012 - Barrons - Cattle Futures Beef Up

Jan 20, 2012 - MarketWatch - Food security is a good investment for the future

Jan 21, 2012 - Lancaster Farming - Nutrient Trading Slow, but DEP Sees Big Potential

Jan 7, 2012 - Woods Hole Research Center - New report reviews U.S. nitrogen pollution impacts & solutions

Dec 15, 2011 - Yakima Herald - Study Connects Large-Scale Dairies, Feedlots to Increased Air Pollution

Nov 16, 2011 - - FrieslandCampina and Unilever support sustainable dairy

Oct 3, 2011 - Sacramento Bee - Good Water Gone Bad

Sept 30, 2011 - Echo Press - What Is In Our Water - Part 2 PDF Icon

Sept 28, 2011 - Echo Press - What Is In Our Water - Part 1 PDF Icon

Sept 28, 2011 - WOWK-13 - Cap and Trade for Nutrients Coming to Ohio River Valley

Sept 26, 2011 - US EPA - U.S. EPA Orders 13 Chino Dairies to Control Manure Runoff

Sept 25, 2011 - Richmond Times-Dispatch - Bay's restoration makes environmental, economic sense

Sept 7, 2011 - USGS - New USGS Database Provides Models on Excessive Nutrients in Rivers

August 9, 2011 - Chemical & Engineering News - No Progress In Nitrate Cleanup Of Mississippi River

June 14, 2011 - Science Daily - Major Flooding on the Mississippi River Likely to Cause Large Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone

June 2, 2011 - NY Times - Chemicals in Farm Runoff Rattle States on the Mississippi

May 31, 2011 - LA Times (Op Ed) - Wal-Mart's green hat

April 29, 2011 - - Smithfield Foods and the Quest for Large-Scale, Sustainable Pork

April 18, 2011 - - EPA Modeling Raises Fears Over Strict Mississippi River Nutrient Limits PDF Icon

April 11, 2011 - Science Daily - Excessive Nitrogen Harms the Economy and Environment: First Europe-Wide Assessment Published

March 9, 2011 - Washington Post - Report: Excessive nutrients damaging Great Lakes

March 9, 2011 - PRNewswire - EIP: Unregulated Factory Farm Air Pollution at Some Sites Now Dirtier than America's Most Polluted Cities

February 24, 2011 - Food and Water Watch - Out of Sight, California's Groundwater Disaster is Also Out of Mind

February 23, 2011 - DTN Progressive Farmer - EPA Seen Likely to Use Bay as Model in Other Regions

February 14, 2011 - University of Queensland Australia - Acid oceans demand greater reef care

February 14, 2011 - Science Daily - World Phosphorous Use Crosses Critical Threshold

January 7, 2011 - High Plains/Midwest Ag Journal - EPA and the Chesapeake Bay

January 5, 2011 - BizReport - Report: Brands must advertise sustainability efforts

December 31, 2010 - AGJOURNAL.COM - Unusually high nitrogen levels found in Colorado's Front Range

December 23, 2010 - - Reed: EPA watershed rules are 'crippling'

December 22, 2010 - Manufacturing and Business Technology - What The Food Safety Modernization Act Means To You

December 22, 2010 - The Farm Gate (Univ of Illinois) - How Are We Going To Double Global Food Production Over The Next 40 Years?

December 8, 2010 - Andrea Thomas (SVP Sustainability - Walmart) - Why Sustainable Agriculture is Important to Everyone

December 4, 2010 - - Bay plan: 'Strongest blueprint,' big cost

December 3, 2010 - NoFishLeft - Ocean Dead Zones Double Down: The Seas are the Limit

December 2, 2010 - Western Farm Press - Future of farming: Big acreage, high-tech, earth-friendly

November 18, 2010 - Baltimore Sun - Greens want tighter pollution limits on poultry manure

November 16, 2010 - Walmart Community - Why Sustainable Agriculture is Important to Walmart

November 2, 2010 - Waterworld - Elevated Nitrogen, Phosphorus Still Widespread in U.S. Waters

October 25, 2010 - Spiked-Online - In Defence of Factory Farming

October 20, 2010 - High Plains/Midwest Ag Journal - How Walmart's sustainability efforts could impact on-farm production

October 14, 2010 - The New York Times - Wal-Mart to Buy More Local Produce

October 14, 2010 - The National Academies Briefing before Congress - Improving Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin and Northern Gulf of Mexico: Strategies and Priorities

September 29, 2010 - Science Daily - Worlds Rivers in 'Crisis State', Report Finds

September 23, 2010 - USGS Newsroom - Elevated Nitrogen and Phosphorus Still Widespread in Much of the Nation's Streams and Groundwater

September 3, 2010 - Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President - New Report Warns of Expanding Threat of Hypoxia in U.S. Coastal Waters PDF Icon

August 12, 2010 - US EPA - Eight Beef Feedlots in Northwest Iowa Face Enforcement Actions as EPA Emphasizes Compliance with Clean Water Act

August 3, 2010 - New York Times - This Year's Gulf 'Dead Zone' Among Largest Ever

July 6, 2010 - Center for Global Food Issues - CONFINED LIVESTOCK BETTER FOR THE PLANET

July 2, 2010 - AP - Grand Lake St. Mary's Is Toxic Due To Runoff From Neighboring Farms

July 1, 2010 - US EPA - EPA Announces Next Step Toward Establishing Rigorous Pollution Diet for Chesapeake Bay

June 21, 2010 - Scientific American - Sour Showers: Acid Rain Returns--This Time It Is Caused by Nitrogen Emissions

June 14, 2010 - Environmental - Agency Estimates $298 B Needed for Water Pollution Control

June 9, 2010 - US EPA - Three Beef Feedlots in Iowa Face Civil Enforcement Actions as EPA Continues Emphasis on Compliance with Clean Water Act

June 8, 2010 - NY Times - Amish Farming Draws Rare Government Scrutiny

May 21, 2010 - Southeast Farm Press, Looking to air to improve Chesapeake Bay

May 13, 2010 - California Watch, Nitrate contamination spreading in California communities

May 12, 2010 - US EPA, New Federal Strategy for Chesapeake Launches Major Initiatives and Holds Government Accountable for Progress

March 17, 2010 - Science Daily, Environmental and Social Impact of the 'Livestock Revolution'

March 12, 2010 - Science Daily, Aquatic 'Dead Zones' Contributing to Climate Change

March 1, 2010 - Energy Bulletin, Tracking down the public-health implications of nitrogen pollution

March 1, 2010 - Washington Post, Manure becomes pollutant as its volume grows unmanageable

February 18, 2010 - FAO report analyzes the rapidly changing global livestock production

January 15, 2010 - US EPA, EPA Proposes Standards to Protect Florida's Waters: Action would decrease amount of phosphorus and nitrogen pollution

December 18, 2009 - US EPA, EPA Releases First-Ever Baseline Study of U.S. Lakes

December 15, 2009 - USDA, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack, Dairy Producers Sign Historic Agreement to Cut Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 25% by 2020

December 9, 2009 - Food and Water Watch, Groups Demand Strong Groundwater Testing Program for Dairies in California's Central Valley

December 9, 2009 - National Public Radio, New Mexico Dairy Pollution Sparks 'Manure War'

December 7, 2009 - US EPA, Greenhouse Gases Threaten Public Health and the Environment

December 4, 2009 - Food and Water Watch, Nutrient credit trading program allows Harrisburg wastewater plant to meet Chesapeake Bay limits more cost effectively

November 17, 2009 - Environment News Service, EPA, Florida Agree to Limit Fertilizer, Animal Waste in State Waters

November 17, 2009 - Courier-Journal (Louisville, KY), Judge rules W. Ky. hog farm permits need reworking PDF Icon

October 23, 2009 - Sun Gazette, Feds 'serious' about bay cleanup

October 20, 2009 - American Farmland Trust, Multi-State Water Quality Trading Effort Launched in Ohio River Basin

October 15, 2009 - US EPA, EPA Administrator Announces Plan to Retool and Reinvigorate Clean Water Enforcement Program

October 10, 2009 - (Chambersburg, PA), CHESAPEAKE BAY: a 'Clean Water' catastrophe - Franklin, Adams, York county farmers brace for more EPA involvement PDF Icon

October 8, 2009 - Bay Journal, New research finds nitrogen loads to Bay underestimated by 20%

September 25, 2009 - Minneapolis Star Tribune, Feds to fund Mississippi clean up from Minnesota to the Gulf

September 17, 2009 - New York Times, Health Ills Abound as Farm Runoff Fouls Wells

September 9, 2009 - Newsday, Bay Reports Call for more Livestock, Runoff Regs

July 7, 2009 - Baltimore Sun, Bay Pollution Called Human Peril PDF Icon


April 20, 2009 - National Public Radio, Navigating America's 'Poisoned Waters'

March 20, 2009 - Bay Journal, Report card gives Bay health a C- despite slight improvement

March 15, 2009 - Baltimore Sun, Chicken Growers Face EPA Crackdown PDF Icon

March 5, 2009 - Science Daily, "Nutrient Pollution Chokes Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems"

January 20, 2009 - New York Times, "States Join E.P.A. Study of Pathogens in Ohio River"

December 27, 2008 - Washington Post, "Broken Promises on the Bay"

November 24, 2008 - Environment News Service, "More Than Health Damaged by Nutrients in Drinking Water"

July 22, 2008 - Science Daily, "Air Pollution Causing Widespread and Serious Impacts to Ecosystems in Eastern United States"

Cautionary Note

The links to the following websites are provided for informational purposes only. Bion does not represent that the following list is complete (it is not) or presents all views on a particular issue or subject (it does not). This list is simply a starting point to make further inquiry into the economic, environmental and political issues in the areas in which Bion does, and intends to, carry out its business, There are innumerable other links and references to be found as part of a due diligence inquiry into these issues. Bion does not warrant the accuracy or timeliness of information published on these websites and shall not be held liable for any losses caused by reliance on the accuracy or timeliness of such information. Potential investors are encouraged to perform their own due diligence.